In contrast to embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells persist for the whole life. They are indispensable to the maintenance and repair of tissues. Some few stem cells in the basal layer of the epidermis produce all the other keratinocytes that differentiate to the stratum corneum and are renewed every four weeks. In older skin, the epidermal stem cells are less active and lower in number leading to wrinkles and an increased renewal time of the epidermis. Plants too have stem cells. After isolation, they can be cultured in liquid media. PhytoCellTecTM Malus Domestica, a preparation of apple stem cells, was found to stimulate the proliferation of human blood stem cells and to increase the lifespan of skin fibroblast cells and of isolated hair follicles. In a clinical trial over 4 weeks with 20 subjects, this new ingredient was found to reduce significantly wrinkles in the crow’s feet area.
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